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AIDS Symptoms and Treatments

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[2][3][4] It may also be referred to as HIV disease or HIV infection.[5][6] Following initial infection, a person may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. This is typically followed by a prolonged period without symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more and more with the immune system, making the person much more susceptible to common infections, like tuberculosis, as well as opportunistic infections and tumors that do not usually affect people who have working immune systems. The late symptoms of the infection are referred to as AIDS. This stage is often complicated by an infection …

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AKATHISIA Symptoms and Treatments

Akathisia, or acathisia (from Greek καθίζειν kathízein – “to sit”, a- indicating negation or absence, lit. “inability to sit”) is a movement disorder characterized by a feeling of inner restlessness and a compelling need to be in constant motion, as well as by actions such as rocking while standing or sitting, lifting the feet as if marching on the spot, and crossing and uncrossing the legs while sitting. People with akathisia are unable to sit or keep still, complain of restlessness, fidget, rock from foot to foot, and pace.[1] The term was coined by the Czech neuropsychiatrist Ladislav Haskovec (1866–1944), who described the phenomenon in 1901.[2][3] Antipsychotics (also known as neuroleptics), particularly the first generation antipsychotics, may cause akathisia. Other …

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ALCOHOLISM Symptoms and Treatments

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD) and alcohol dependence syndrome, is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems.[1] It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.[2][3] In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.[3] Risky situations include …

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ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER Symptoms and Treatments

Antisocial (or dissocial) personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. There may be an impoverished moral sense or conscience and a history of crime, legal problems, and impulsive and aggressive behavior. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is the name of the disorder as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). Dissocial personality disorder is the name of a similar or equivalent concept defined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), where it states that the diagnosis includes antisocial personality disorder. Both manuals have similar but not identical criteria.[1] Both have also stated that their diagnoses have been referred to, or include what is referred …

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ALLERGIES Symptoms and Treatments

Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little problem in most people.[1] These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.[2] Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling.[3] Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.[4][5] Common allergens include pollen and food. Metals and other substances may also cause problems.[1] Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions. Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors.[6] The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), part of the body’s immune system, binding to an allergen …

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ALZHEIMER Symptoms and Treatments

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), also known as Alzheimer disease, or just Alzheimer’s, accounts for 60% to 70% of cases of dementia.[1][2] It is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time.[1][2] The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss).[1] As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, not managing self care, and behavioural issues.[1][2] As a person’s condition declines, they often withdraw from family and society.[1] Gradually, bodily functions are lost, ultimately leading to death.[3] Although the speed of progression can vary, the average life expectancy following diagnosis is three to nine years.[4][5] The cause of Alzheimer’s disease …

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ALLERGY Symptoms and Treatments

Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little problem in most people.[1] These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.[2] Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling.[3] Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.[4][5] Common allergens include pollen and food. Metals and other substances may also cause problems.[1] Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions. Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors.[6] The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), part of the body’s immune system, binding to an allergen …

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ALOPECIA AREATA Symptoms and Treatments

Alopecia areata (AA), also known as spot baldness, is an autoimmune disease in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body, usually from the scalp due to the body’s failure to recognize its own body cells and destroys its own tissue as if it were an invader.[1][2] Often it causes bald spots on the scalp, especially in the first stages. In 1–2% of cases, the condition can spread to the entire scalp (alopecia totalis) or to the entire epidermis (alopecia universalis). Conditions resembling AA, and having a similar cause, occur also in other species

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AMBLYOPIA Symptoms and Treatments

Amblyopia (from Greek αμβλυωπία, “blunt vision”), also called lazy eye, is a disorder of sight.[1] It results in decreased vision in an eye that otherwise appears normal, or out of proportion to associated structural problems of the eye. Whenever the brain does not receive visual signals from an eye for a long period of time, there is a risk of amblyopia. It also can occur when the brain “turns off” the visual processing of one eye to prevent double-vision, for example in strabismus (crossed eyes). The cause of amblyopia is within the brain.[2] Detecting the condition in early childhood increases the chance of successful treatment, especially if detected before the age of five. The earlier it is detected, and the …

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AMEBIASIS Symptoms and Treatments

Amoebiasis, also known as amebiasis or entamoebiasis,[1][2] is an infection caused by any of the amoebas of the Entamoeba group. Symptoms are most common upon infection by Entamoeba histolytica. Amoebiasis can present with no, mild, or severe symptoms. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, mild diarrhoea, bloody diarrhea or severe colitis with tissue death and perforation. This last complication may cause peritonitis. People affected may develop anemia due to loss of blood.[3] Invasion of the intestinal lining causes amoebic bloody diarrhea or amoebic colitis. If the parasite reaches the bloodstream it can spread through the body, most frequently ending up in the liver where it causes amoebic liver abscesses. Liver abscesses can occur without previous diarrhea. Cysts of Entamoeba can survive …

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